Just picked up a Lacerdae from one of the vendors here. Received shipment yesterday and here is a quick cell phone shot of him after about Hoplias lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, AphiaID. (urn:lsid: :taxname). Classification. Biota; Animalia. SpeciesHoplias lacerdaeGiant trahira. ADW Pocket Guides on the iOS App Store! The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides!.
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Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group Ostariophysi: Erythrinidae with descriptions of two new species. Oyakawa I ; George M. The Hoplias lacerdae group is defined as containing generally large trahiras with hoplis medial margins of dentaries running parallel to each other and lacking hkplias on the basihyal compared to the H. A taxonomic revision of the group based on meristic and morphometric data identified five distinct species: A lectotype for Hoplias intermedius and a neotype for H.
They inhabit a great number of habitats, ranging from lotic environments such as small to hoolias rivers and waterfalls, to strictly lentic ho;lias such as lakes and reservoirs. In all habitats they are predators of other fish Taphorn, ; Planquette et al. Many species are important in subsistence and commercial fisheries in various regions of Brazil and other South American countries Goulding, Species of Hoplias can achieve considerable size, and H.
The genus can be distinguished from all other characiforms by the following derived characters: One of these groups within Hoplias was informally called the H. The second assemblage is the H. The third is the H. It is defined by the absence of an accessory ectopterygoid and the presence of a dark oval spot on the opercular membrane.
Eight species are considered valid in Hoplias Oyakawa, ; Mattox et al. The number of joplias of the H. The purpose of this paper is to review the species of the H. This study was based on meristic and morphometric data from specimens.
Meristic data was taken under a stereomicroscope and the morphometric data was taken point-to-point with digital calipers to 0. Unbranched and branched fin-ray counts are presented as Roman and Arabic numbers, respectively.
Osteological names follow Weitzman and Roberts Descriptions of coloration were based on specimens preserved in ethanol. An identification key to species of the Hoplias lacerdae group is presented with modal meristic values presented in brackets. MCP2, Lerner; MCP1, Rio Grande do Sul State.
Lacerdwe1, Iaczinski; MCP1, Bergmann; MCP2, Ramires; MCP1, Vargas; MCP2, Lacsrdae MCP1, Pereira; MCP1, The number of pores of the laterosensory canal along the ventral surface of dentary distinguished Hoplias australis from H.
The possession of an anterior profile of the head rounded in lateral view distinguished H. Hoplias australis can be further distinguished from H. Morphometric data presented in Table 1. Body cylindrical, deeper than wide. Greatest body depth at vertical through third scale anterior to dorsal-fin origin in specimens smaller than 90 mm SL, and through sixth scale anterior to dorsal-fin origin in larger specimens ca.
Anterior profile of head rounded in lateral view, but more angular in specimens smaller than 40 mm SL. Dorsal profile of head varying from slightly convex in specimens smaller than 40 mm SL to almost straight in larger individuals.
Dorsal margin of orbit at horizontal through dorsal profile of head in specimens smaller than 40 mm SL, but hopkias reaching dorsal profile of head in specimens larger than 90 mm SL. Dorsal profile of body hpplias from vertical through first series of scale to dorsal-fin origin; slightly straight and posteroventrally inclined along dorsal-fin base; slightly concave from vertical through base of hopliass dorsal-fin ray to origin of dorsal most procurrent caudal-fin ray.
Latter portion of profile slightly straighter in specimens smaller than 90 mm SL. Ventral profile of lower jaw distinctly angular in region of dentary symphysis, straight to slightly convex from vertical through anterior nostril to posterior margin of lower jaw. Medial margins of contralateral dentaries approximately parallel Fig. Ventral profile of body slightly convex to pelvic-fin origin; approximately straight from latter point to anal-fin origin; straight and posterodorsally inclined along anal-fin base; slightly concave to straight from base of last anal-fin ray to anterior most ventral procurrent caudal-fin ray.
Upper jaw usually as long as lower jaw, but slightly shorter in some specimens. Posterior portion of maxilla dorsally enlarged and extending medially to anterior margins of second and third infraorbitals.
Upper and lower lips fleshy with short skin projections covering canines externally. Anterior nostril tubular with anterior slit along its distal half. Anterior and posterior nostrils situated along horizontal through center of orbit, anterior nostril located at point two-thirds of orbital diameter from anterior margin of orbit.
Posterior nostril situated closer to anterior nostril than to anterior margin of orbit.
Eye proportionately larger in smaller specimens. Infraorbital bones well developed and horizontally elongate. Infraorbitals 3, 4, and ventral portion of 5 partially covering preopercle. Ventral margin of infraorbital 3 convex. Posterior margin of infraorbital 4 relatively straight and margins of infraorbitals 5 and 6 slightly convex.
Teeth in both jaws conical or canine. Premaxillary teeth in single row. First premaxillary tooth large canine, second, seventh and ninth teeth medium sized. Eighth tooth canine and almost as large as anterior most premaxillary canine in large specimens ca. Third to lacerdas premaxillary teeth small. Maxilla with single row of approximately 30 relatively small teeth.
Dentary with anterior external row of teeth and posterior internal row. External series with three small anterior teeth followed by two well-developed canines, with posterior one larger.
Posterior canine followed by laceerdae conical teeth, some half size of anterior most dentary canine. Internal series beginning proximate to small conical tooth posterior to last conical tooth of external series and composed of approximately 12 very small teeth. Accessory ectopterygoid and ectopterygoid toothed; latter with series of small conical teeth along its ventrolateral margin and many smaller viliform teeth medially along its ventral surface.
Distal margins of all fins rounded. Dorsal fin located at midbody, its origin at vertical through approximately second scale anterior on series along pelvic-fin origin. Length of longest dorsal-fin rays two-thirds of body depth. Tips of longest rays of depressed dorsal fin not extending lacereae vertical through anal-fin origin.
Pectoral-fin origin located at vertical through posterior region of opercle. Tip of pectoral fin separated from pelvic-fin origin by four to six scales, and falling short of vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Pectoral, pelvic and anal fins of similar sizes. Pelvic-fin origin situated at midbody and approximately three scales posterior of vertical through dorsal-fin origin.
Tip of pelvic fin separated from vertical through anal-fin origin by three scales in specimens smaller than 90 mm SL, and by up to eight scales in larger specimens ca. Well-developed, imbricated cycloid scales along hoplkas. Dorsal scales begin in series hopliss posterior margin of parietals lacedrae overlap supraoccipital spine.
Last vertical series laecrdae scales on caudal peduncle forming slightly convex arch on caudal-fin base. Anterior margin of scales with small recess and posterior margin rounded. Approximately twelve radii extending from center of scale to its anterior margin and around twenty-two radiisome anastomosed, extending from center of scale to its dorsal, posterior and ventral margins.
Lateral line straight and complete, extending from posteroventral margin of supracleithrum to posterior most scale in body.
Lateral-line scales with single laterosensory canal. Longitudinal series of scales between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin 4. Longitudinal series of lacereae between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin 3.
lacerrae Approximately 12 gill rakers on first epibranchial, most in form of hopplias denticulated plates. Ground coloration of head and body dark brown or dark grey, darker dorsally and paler ventrally, latter region white or dark yellow to light brown in most specimens. Dark brown midlateral stripe along lateral line weakly evident in specimens smaller than 90 mm SL and almost absent in larger specimens ca. Approximately seven dark blotches along lateral line with width of blotches about six longitudinal series of scales; pattern more conspicuous in specimens smaller than 90 mm SL.
Dark coloration of body obscuring dark midlateral stripe and blotches in larger specimens. Three or four dark blotches lacerdse along dorsal surface of body. Some specimens with several small dark spots located on dorsolateral portion of body.
Dorsal surface of head dark brown or grey.
Numerous small black spots on dorsal surface of head of several specimens. Lips dark grey, with small vertical light bands in specimens smaller than 40 mm SL. Coloration of infraorbital region similar to that of dorsal surface of head.